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解密南宋金银货币
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李晓萍 金银流霞丨古代金银货币鉴赏丨


南宋偏安一隅历时152年,与其在政治、军事上的羸弱无能相比,其经济、文化却得到了充分发展,这在丝织、制瓷、造船、造纸,印刷、漆器,农田水利上都有所体现。经济的繁荣大大促进了货币形式的多样化,除纸币与铜钱等重要通货外,贵金属黄金白银也作为国家的基本财富、参与到地方政府的上供、国家税收、专卖制度、海外贸易等领域中来。而且较前朝更是有过之而无不及,这在中国金银货币史上是空前绝后的。自上世纪五十年代起,陆续在浙江杭州、湖州、温州、安徽六安、河南方城、上蔡、商丘、江苏溧阳、盱眙、高淳、南京、湖北黄石、蕲春、四川双流等地都出土南宋金银货币。据不完全统计,出土量达数千件以上,其中包括金牌、金叶子、大小型金铤和各种各样铭文的大小银铤,其数量、品种之多,蔚为大观。这无疑给中国古代金银货币的研究和收藏注入了新的血液,提供了广阔的空间。

During the 152-year of rulingtime, the economy and culture of the south Song developed well than theirpolities and military. This was shown on silk, china, shipbuilding,paper-making, printing, and agriculture and irrigation. The boost of economycaused the variety of currency. Gold and silver became the basic wealth of thenation beside the banknote and coin, they involved into ShangGong(offer goodsto the government annually), the taxation, sale permission and internationaltrading.

During the past 60 years, thegold and silver ingots of south Song was doing unearthedHangzhou,Huzhou,Wenzhou of Zhejiang province . Liuan Anhui province.Fangcheng,Shangcai, Shangqiu Henan province. Liyang,Xuyu,Gaochun,Nanjingprovince.Huangshi,Qichun Hubei province. Shuangliu Sichuan province. The numberexceeds thousands, this provides large scaled information of Medieval gold andsilver ingots research .

目前发现南宋黄金货币有大型金鋌、一两金铤、金牌、金叶子等。

金铤金牌金叶子的铭文比较简单,通常是有表示金的成色、金银铺名、工匠名及彰名店铺的押记等。大型金铤是近几年发现的,有束腰型和直型二种,五十两、二十五两、十二两半、十两、八两、六两、三两等几种。有铭文和素面二类,铭文又有刻字和戳记之分。成色有足金和九分金。

The type of gold currency arelarge gold ingot, gold bar. gold piece and gold foil. The characters includefineness, the name of gold and silver shop as well as silversmith.


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相五郎二十五两金铤

Xiangwulang 25 taels Gold ingot


大型金铤在使用时,常会根据用量分割使用,就出现被切割过的痕迹,或一半、或缺角等。在发现的大型金铤里有很大一部分的经过切割的,这是古代人们使用金银的真实反映。

During past time, The people usually cut the gold ingot into pieces when they usedSo we discovered many gold ingots hasbeen cut in that times, This is the Medieval people truly reflection of the useof gold and silver.


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烧验讫五十两金铤(切半)

Shaoyanqi 50taels gold ingot (cutting)

戳记: 务场官□ 九分四厘 叶椿 刘兴记高顺 宋铺 周师□□ 烧验讫

Stamp: wuchang officer ,jiufensili ,yechun.liuxingji.gaoshun.songpu. Zhoushi, shaoyanqi.


一两金铤是一种常见的小型黄金货币,重40克左右,合南宋市称一两,在杭州、安徽、江苏都有出土。

Thegold bar is a familiar hackneyed gold currency. Weight around 40g, close to 1tael. unearthed in Hangzhou Zhejiang,Liuan,,Anhui,Xuyu Jiangsu.


04石元铺一两金铤.jpg



石元铺一两金铤

Shiyuanpu 1 tael gold bar


金叶子系纯金箔制成,簿如纸,形状似书页,至今见到的有3个品种。

比较典型的是折成十页的那一种,实测长95~100毫米,宽39~40毫米,重量在35~40克之间。

Thegold foil is made from pure gold. There are 3 types gold foil: This is the mosttypical one.


05南王二郎一两金叶子.jpg


南王二郎一两金叶子

Nanwangerlang 1 tael gold foil


金牌是一种小型的黄金货币,重4克左右,是一两金铤重量的十分之一,在杭州、安徽、江苏都有出土。

Thegold tablet is a small gold currency. unearthed in HangzhouZhejiang,Liuan,,Anhui,Xuyu Jiangsu.


06韩四郎金牌.jpg


韩四郎金牌

HanSiLang gold tablet


在南宋金银铤中,特别是临安金银交引铺铸造的银铤大多都砸有戳记,通常是上中下六个戳记。通常有表示银铤性质的“京销铤银”、“京销细渗”。表示金银铺金银匠名的“周王铺”、“赵孙宅”、“杜一郎”等。有表示金银铺位于地的“霸北街西”、“都税务前”、“猫儿桥东”“街东桥西”等。有表示成色的“渗银”、“细渗”、“正渗”、“真花银”等。有表示重量的“重五十两”、“重二十五两”、“重十二两半”、“六两”等。

There are stamps on ingotsmanufactured in the shops of the capital, usually on the upper, center andlower surface with both left and right.these stamps shows the properties of thesilver ingot “Jingxiaotingyin”. the name of the shop or smith. the location ofthe shop. fineness and weigth. Etc.

The weight of silver ingots variesfrom 50 taels (1800-2000g),25 taels (900-960g),12.5 taels(400-500g),6 taels(200-220 g)etc.

“京销铤银”、“京销银”是南宋银铤中最为常见的戳记铭文,意思是京城金银交引铺销铸的铤状白银。此外,还有少量的京销渗银、京销细渗、京销正渗等。渗银、细渗、正渗都是指白银的成色。

“Jingxiaotingyin”or “Jingxiaoyin”are mostcommon silver ingot’s stamp , it means the ingot make by gold and silver shopof the capital of South Song dynasty. On the other hand, there are few “Jingxiaosengyin”.”Jingxiaoxiseng”.”Jingxiaozhengseng”. Etc. these wordsmeans the fineness of silver.


07京销铤银 重十二两半.jpg


戳记:京销铤银 重十二两半

Stamp: Jingxiaotingyin 12、5 taels


已经发现有霸北街西、霸北街东、霸南街西、霸南街东、霸东街南、霸西、市西、铁线巷、柴木巷、水巷里角、猫儿桥东、荐桥北街东、寺桥、跨浦桥北、朝天门里、保佑坊南、天水桥东、 清河坊北、都税务前、霸头里角、街东桥西、街东面西等地名。

不仅如此,在南宋银铤上还发现有温州的康乐坊、嘉兴的广平桥、南京的镇淮桥北、建康御街、江苏镇江、安徽光州、湖北襄阳、广东城南等地名。这说明在京城以外也开设了金银铺。

It is known that a lot of stamps shows location of shops.such as“Babeijiexi”.”Babeijiedong”.”Bananjiexi”.”Bajiedong”.”Shixi”.”tiexianxiang”.”caimoxiang”.”shuixianglijiao”.”Maoerqiaodong”.etc.

On the other side, some stamps with location of shop in another citys. Such as “Kanglefang” Wenzhou . “Guangpingqiao” Jiaxin. “Jiankangyujie”Nanjing. Etc.


08铁线巷陈二郎 重二十五两.jpg


戳记:铁线巷陈二郎 重二十五两

Stamp: Tiexian lane Chenerlang 25 taels


我们在南宋金铤金牌金叶子上发现有的“十分金”“十分赤金”、“九分四厘”戳记,在银铤上发现有“真花银””、“花银”、“渗银”、“细渗”等戳记铭文。这些戳记表示了金银的成色。

“shifenjin”. “shifenchijin”means 9999% gold.“jiufensili”means94% gold.“zhenhuayin”.”huayin”.”shenyin”.”xiseng”means fineness.

所谓上供就是指地方向京师输送财赋。目前发现的上供银,其铭文表述多种多样,有直接写明上供银的,也有用大礼银、圣节银、纲银,冬季、夏季银,州军府银,转运司银等其他称谓的。上供银是向朝廷输送白银,这些白银来源于坑冶,专卖品钞引买卖收入,各种实物及税收折银,各州为了完成上供白银的数量向金银铺买银。同时朝廷对上供进奉的白银有明确的重量规定。南宋庆元年间(1195-1200年)的《辇运令》规定:上供金银要用上等的成色,白银要鞘成铤,大铤五十两,小铤二十两。从银铤本身观察,有的铭文表述的非常完整,有地点,时间,用项银,缴纳地点,监办官员差役、银匠等。这类银铤一般是各路州军按照朝廷规定的数量,时间,地点输送财赋。因而在银铤上写明上供的州军府,上供的时间,送抵的目的地和负责上供银的官员的官职和姓名,银匠名等,以便督查。

ShangGong means the commodities tocapital by local administration, there are 3 situations: to the royal family,the capital and ensured conditions such as the number, the time and place. ShangGongsilver means exchanging commodities to silver. There were many different namessuch as Shanggongyin, Daliyin, Shengjieyin, Gangyin,Dongjiyin, xiajiyin,zhuanyuansiyin.etc.Some characters describes the place, time, usage, place tohandle , the name of officer,smith.etc.


09全州宝祐二年冬季银五十两.jpg


全州宝祐二年冬季银五十两

Quanzhou Baoyou 2nd year(AD1254) winten silver 50taels ingot

铭文:全州通判起解宝祐二年冬季银前赴淮西总领所交纳口 从事郎全州军事推官赵崇达

Words:Tongpan of Quanzhou sent thewinter silver to hand in of Huaixi Zonglingsuo in Baoyou 2nd year,the militaryofficer Chongda Zhao of Congshilang Quanzhou


宋代的专卖品主要有盐、酒、茶、香、矾等,专卖收入与田赋收入基本持平,二者是国家财政收入的主要部分。钞库即卖钞库,是一种买卖盐钞的机构。

Sales permission included salt,alcohol, tea, spices, vitriol, it was equal as farm tax, and contributed to theincome. Maichaoku means the organization of buying and selling salt permission.


10广东钞库二十五两半银铤.jpg


广东钞库二十五两半银铤

GuangdongChaoku 25 taels ingot


在发现的银铤中,铭文中包含税名有杂税折银的经总制银,僧侣赋税或赋役折银的免丁银,商税折银的出门税银铤等。

The characters found includes varies of name of taxation, suchas Jingzongzhiyin.Miandingyin and the enter and exit tax .


11京销银霸广州经制银十二两半银铤.jpg


京销银霸广州经制银十二两半银铤

GuangzhouJingzhiyin 12、5 taels silver ingot


12出门税二十五两银铤.jpg


出门税二十五两银铤

The enter and exit tax 25 taels silveringots


出门税银铤发现不少,大多发现在淮河两岸。说明与宋金边境贸易有着很大的联系。淮河两岸的榷场贸易的兴盛是导致行商异地贩货的热情,行商携带大量货物从此地到彼地,需途经大大小小的城门,缴纳出门税。

The enter and exit tax ingots werecommon in Huai river area, due to the boom of trade of border.

南宋金银货币是作为国家赋入来源于各项专卖品的收入、各项赋税收入、政府规定的年度上供数额由诸州军县直接上供总领所或由朝廷调配到总领所。从实物来分析,可分成两大类。通体钤刻铭文的通常是各州军征缴的上供银、税银,一般铭文较长,内容包括起发地点,时间,用项,缴纳地点,监办官员差役、银匠等,是当地金银铺打造的。另一类是由京城临安金银交引铺或外地金银铺打造的金银铤等,铭文是以戳记的形式出现的,铭文通常是由京销铤银、街区名、金银铺名或人名、重量、成色等组成。有的银铤上面还刻上某地上供、某地经制银、某地纲银等,这些是州军为了完成朝廷的上供年额到金银铺去买银,刻上地名用项上供朝廷。所以,在这个层面上说,这些银铤是一种商品。同时,政府的专卖收入、赋税收入又往往是折换成金银来完成上供转运的。京城的金银交引铺的主要职责是兑换茶盐钞引,而大量涌入市场的钞引催生了金银铺铸造金银货币的热情,铸造金银-兑换钞引或赋税折换-上供朝廷-购买物资-返回商贾。或者是铸造金银-买卖金银-金银上供-朝廷支用-购买物资-返回商贾。这就成为金银货币循环链,这就是南宋金银货币真实的运行过程。

The gold and silver currency is thetool to measure the national income via the income from selling monopolisticgoods and taxation. It could be identified as 2 types via the characters: thefully engraved with longer words was provided by the local administration astax, contains departure location and time, usage, place to hand, the name ofmonitors as well as the silversmith as it was manufactured in the local shop.The other was manufactured in the shop of capital with stamped charactersincluding the name of block, shop, silversmith; weight and quality etc. Some ofingots were engraved the name of military organization from certain county. Itis said that these ingots could be seen as a commodities rather thancurrencies. The national income was exchanged to gold and silver in order tocomplete the process of business. The shop exchanged the sale permission of teaand salt, they prefer to cast more ingots as more permissions available in themarket. This is the circle of the gold and silver currency:

Shop cast gold and silver ingots-exchangethe taxation-transfer the ingots to the government-government consumecommodities-return to shop, or casting gold and silver ingots than buying andselling them directly rather than exchange.

(英文翻译:王伟力)


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